After logging in, you'll be able to save your favorite works of art in this section. Read more about “My Collection” in the “Project” section.
Push slider to the right
Registration successful.
Username already exists!
Passwords do not match!
Slider error
You are almost done. To activate your account, please click the link in the activation email which has been sent to your email address ( )
A new password has been sent.
First Strides
Raimonda Bitinaitė-Širvinskienė
Technological innovation

After the condemnation of Stalin's "cult of personality" in 1956, the art world turned its attention to modernity: renewal, progress and human socialization. Changes taking place throughout the country also impacted innovation in theatre between 1956 and 1968, particularly in theatre's visual expression.
In the first half of the 20th century, Antonin Artaud observed:
Sight has dominated since the 1920s. We have entered the era of cinema, and more and more we communicate through visual signs. Antonin Artaud, Teatras ir jo antrininkas, Vilnius: Scena, 1999, p. 142.
Or, in the words of Pierre Corneille, one of the great dramatists of the Baroque era, "an image is much more effective than a verbal narrative." Pierre Corneille, Discours du poeme dramatique, Paris, 1660, p. 20.
In the liberalizing spirit of the day, an era of renewal took hold in Lithuanian set design: experimentation flourished and a new critical view of past traditions began to take shape. In truth, circumstances in the so-called "thaw" period were complicated, and renewal had its limits. Nevertheless, theatres were successful in their attempts to turn toward modernisation: "one of the reasons why the repression of culture failed, essentially, was the inability of the cultural minders to agree on what was permissible", Romualdas Misiūnas, Rein Taagepera, Baltijos valstybės: priklausomybės metai 1940–1980, Vilnius: Mintis, 1992, p. 183. another reason being the appearance of such phenomena as ideological manipulation and behavioural duality. Juozas Algimantas Krištopaitis, „Dvilypumo briauna sovietmečio visuomenės elgsenoje“, in: Priklausomybės metų (1940–1990) lietuvių visuomenė: pasipriešinimas ir/ar prisitaikymas, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 1996, p. 37–40. Innovation in set design may have also been accelerated by many other factors that encouraged artists to experiment and to seek out new and original ideas and thereby change their perception of the creative process.
Changes in fluid imagery occurred as set design methods and spaces were modernized. As the world recovered from war, new modern theatre facilities arose, housing various types of stages: from those that thrust partially into the audience to completely free, unrestricted performance spaces. Back curtains were replaced by enormous screens that could compete with those found in movie theatres.
New theatre buildings were constructed in Lithuania in the years from 1956 to 1968 (the Klaipėda Musical Theatre in 1963; the Panevėžys Drama Theatre in 1967), the size of stages increased and equipment was modernized. As with theatres in the West, much attention was devoted to lighting, new technologies, the introduction of projection equipment, Projection set design Projection set design imagery projected onto a screen, comprised of slide projections of coloured or black and white drawings, aimed at the horizon, the back wall of the stage, flats or the stage floor. Direct projection (where the projector was placed in front of a screen) differed from transparent projection (with the projector placed behind the screen), and images could be static (architectural backdrops, landscapes) or dynamic (moving clouds, rain, snow). First used in New York in 1908. and stage flooring was mechanized. Round, rotating stages were constructed at the State Drama Theatre in 1963 and the Panevėžys Drama Theatre one year later. Such stages, used throughout the world since their invention in 1758 in Japan, were first used in Lithuania in the 1960s. Classical stage elements such as flats, backgrounds and portals became less functional and set design took on volume.  Placed in the centre of the stage, sets began to work together with the actor. Despite these innovations, Lithuanian stage equipment remained far behind the technology used in theatres in Western Europe.
Expanding contacts

Changes in set design were influenced not only by the general rebirth of the theatrical arts, but also by the brief opening to the world that Lithuania experienced in this period. Many theatre professionals travelled to Moscow where they had the chance to see world-class productions.
The Soviet capital hosted Jean Villar's Theatre National Populaire with its masterful lighting techniques; Bertold Brecht's Berliner Ensemble that employed the new theatrical method of the "alienation effect" (Verfremdungseffekt); Peter Brook and his innovative interpretations of the classics such as King Lear; exotic and colourful Chinese opera productions; and the master of expressive movement, the mime Marcel Marceau. An exhibition by the famous Czech artist Josef Svoboda was also held in Moscow.
Every theatre artist dreamed of seeing the first worldwide set design exhibition that opened in Prague in 1967 – an event still held every four years under the name Prague Quadrennial.
Theatre artists devoured new information from foreign journals and magazines. Among the most popular of such publications accessible in Lithuania were the Polish Projekt and Декоративное искусство СССР (Decorative Arts USSR), first published in 1957 to showcase ideas in the applied arts.
Publications, exhibitions and performance tours educated curious Lithuanian artists about the latest events in the theatre and arts scene. Lithuanian set designers were emboldened by the new pursuits of their Western and Russian colleagues. A new push to participate in the action of the play took hold, freeing set design from the more limited functions of decoration and painted stage imagery.  The search for new forms of expression became a paramount objective. The many experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s in various theatres around the world included discoveries in avant-garde art and the adaptation of technological advances (particularly in lighting and movement) for the theatre stage. The means by which a new, fluid language of set design could expressively reveal the main motifs and themes of drama became more evident. Only when it helped communicate the circumstances of dramatic conflict and the forces resisting the protagonist and the inner world of the actors could set design became the most important element of a production.
On the Russian stage, a declarative publicist sharpness and exactitude was associated with the vibrant and fluid language of folk art. At the forefront of Soviet set design in the 1960s were Russian artists David Borovsky, Alexander Vasiljev, Valery Levental, Daniel Lider, Eduard Kochergin, Sergei Barkin, Georgian artist Simon Virsaladze and Latvian artists Ilmārs Blumbergs and Andris Freibergs.
Lithuanians followed the experiments taking place in Czech and Polish theatre with great interest.
From the pages of the Polish journal Projekt, they learned the names of new designers, including such great experimenters as Tadeusz Kantor, Jerzy Grotowski, Jerzy Gurawski, Józef Szajna, Wiesław Lange, Andrzej Stopka and Adam Killian.
Of no less interest were the creative pursuits using projections and filmed images by the Czech Theatregraph artists Emil Burian, Martin Kouřil and Josef Svoboda, who brought an exceptional expressionism, effectiveness, political resonance and universality to theatre. Lithuanian theatre professionals often emphasized the example shown by Czech theatre:
The issues we are discussing today are a thing of the past in Czechoslovakia. They are now addressing new lighting and dynamics problems. They have an institute that scientifically researches all issues associated with theatre arts. We should send our artists to Czechoslovakia to learn from them and master their accomplishments in theatre technology. Veronikos Kulešovos kalba teatro dailės konferencijoje 1964 12 14, in: Protokolas LTSR kultūros ministerijai, 1965 01 15, p. 5. 
Trips were more frequent to Russian theatres, however, as they were easier to request. In 1964, for example, during the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre's monumental production of Aram Khachaturian's Spartacus, the production's young artist and set designer Antanas Pilipavičius was accompanied to Leningrad's Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre by the renowned set designer Vytautas Palaima.
New impressions awakened the imagination and encouraged experimentation, despite the fact that censorship continued to be imposed even during the so-called "thaw" period, and opportunities available to Lithuanian theatres were still a far cry from those enjoyed in Western Europe. The bravest innovations of Polish and Czech theatres of the 1960s only reached Lithuanian stages a decade later.
Artistic hopes and recognition
The Lithuanian theatre artists and professionals of the 1950s and 1960s sought ways to introduce changes in line with their own circumstances and abilities. Various events attempted to draw attention to stage imagery, including a conference of theatre professionals held in Vilnius in 1956, and the "Baltic Theatrical Spring" in Riga.
Of particular significance was the First Theatre Arts Conference in Kaunas in 1964. Participants discussed the achievements of theatre designers and vindicated the works of Stasys Ušinskas and Liudas Truikys, who had earlier been accused of formalism:
Until now, the works [of Truikys] had gone unrecognized and they had not found their proper place. They will be considered Lithuanian classics and will have an influence on every sensitive artist working in this field. Veronikos Kulešovos kalba teatro dailės konferencijoje 1964 12 14, in: Protokolas LTSR kultūros ministerijai, 1965 01 15, p. 7–8. 
Much criticism was directed at rushed works that deserved to be rejected. The conference resolved to encourage the diversity of individual artistic work and to promote set designers and "lighten their workload." The greatest recognition was given to the works of Feliksas Navickas. His set designs for the play Generalinė repeticija (Dress Rehearsal) were included in the international publication entitled World Set Design After 1950. René Hainaux, Le décor de théâtre dans le monde depuis 1950, Bruxelles, Paris: Meddens, 1964.
No theatre professional earned more awards than those designers who participated in various exhibitions and festivals. Navickas brought home his first diploma in 1958 from the Baltic Theatre Festival in Tallinn, and in 1960, in Riga, he was awarded a First Degree Diploma at the Baltic Set Design Exhibition. In 1963 Navickas was honoured as a laureate of the Lithuanian Theatre Festival in Vilnius. Juozas Jankus was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1952; Jonas Surkevičius was given the "Badge of Honour" medal at the Lithuanian Literature and Arts Festival in Moscow in 1954; and the title of Distinguished Artist of the Lithuanian SSR was conferred upon Juozas Jankus in 1954, Regina Songailaitė and Jonas Surkevičius in 1959, and Michail Percov and Joana Taujanskienė in 1965. Furthermore, Jankus and Songailaitė were honoured with the LSSR State Prize in 1952 and 1960, respectively, while Jankus also received the honorary title of People's Artist in 1957. Lithuanian theatre artists also became known abroad and their recognition brought new attention to the importance of imagery and the role of designers in the theatre.         
Set designers shared their knowledge by participating in Soviet theatre exhibitions in Moscow (1966, 1967) and Leningrad (1965, 1967), and at an exhibition of the Baltic republics in Riga in 1964. Viktorija Gatavynaitė participated in exhibitions of the works of young set designers in Moscow (1959) and Brazil (1960), while Feliksas Navickas took part in a set design exhibition in Montreal in 1964.
Prior to leaving for important "All-Union" exhibitions, Lithuanian artists prepared by "rehearsing" their works at local, republican-level, shows in Vilnius (1957, 1961 and 1963), and began to celebrate their work by organising personal theatre arts exhibits. Such shows were organised to feature the works of Juzefa Čeičytė in 1959, Mstislavas Dobužinskis and Mykolas Labuckas in 1963, Vytautas Palaima in 1965, and Michail Percov in 1969. The exhibits were accompanied by modest catalogues and articles in the local press that emphasized the impact of set design on theatre imagery.
Set design's prestige also grew from the contributions of the first theatre design critics. The most prolific authors writing about set design at this time were the former students of Stasys Ušinskas, who had devoted considerable attention in his lectures to the analysis of artistic works. His students, including the painter Jonas Mackonis, monumentalist Rachilė Krukaitė and art critic Veronika Kulešova-Budrienė, helped to give perspective on the state of set design and the changes taking place in the field. The first doctoral dissertation on set design,"The Set Design of Musical Productions in Lithuanian Theatre", appeared in 1968. That same year, the publication Lithuanian Set Design was published that included a contribution by Mackonis.
A renewed vigour in the world of theatre as well as attention to set design and new opportunities inspired more attention to be directed to the field. Many artists who had begun their artistic studies in painting or interior design at the Vilnius Academy of Arts later shifted their focus to set design. Young, promising artists emerged on the scene. Leading them was Feliksas Navickas, Feliksas NavickasTheatre artist, was born on 5 November 1922 in Lobai (in the county of Kurkliai, Ukmergė District). Navickas created set designs characterised by metaphors and an elevated idealism.

He attended preparatory courses at the Vilnius State University in 1947, and studied at the Vilnius Academy of Arts from 1947 to 1953, earning a degree as a theatre artist. After graduation he was appointed to the Lithuanian State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, where he worked as an artist until 1958. That same year he became a master builder at the Kaunas State Musical Drama Theatre. From 1959 to 1968, Navickas was the senior designer at the Kaunas State Drama Theatre, and then senior designer for the Lithuanian State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre from 1979 to 1983. Navickas was a member of the Lithuanian Theatre Union (since 1955) and the Lithuanian Artists' Union (from 1961). 

Navickas began participating in exhibitions in 1955, including: a showcase of his own works in Kaunas (1965), the Republican Theatre Artists' Exhibitions in Vilnius (1955, 1979), the Baltic Set Design Exhibition (Riga – 1960, 1963), the Vilnius Triennial (1977), and exhibitions of set design in Montreal (1964) and Argentina (1965). Awards include: First Degree Diploma from the USSR Artists' Union for his participation in the Baltic Set Design Exhibition in Riga, 1960; a diploma from the 1958 Baltic Theatre Festival in Tallinn for his set design for The Twentieth Spring, and a diploma for his set design for a production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons at the 1963 Lithuanian Theatre Festival in Vilnius.
 architect and set designer Algimantas Mikėnas, Algimantas MikėnasArchitect and theatre artist, was born on 29 April 1929 in Kaunas, and was known for his development of an expressionist, visual language in theatre.

After graduating from the Applied and Decorative Arts Institute in Kaunas in 1946, Mikėnas studied at the School of Architecture of Vytautas Magnus University, receiving his architectural degree in 1952. Mikėnas worked as a theatre designer at the Panevėžys Drama Theatre from 1961 to 1979, and during this period also designed theatre buildings for the Klaipėda Musical Theatre (1963) and Panevėžys Drama Theatre (1967). Mikėnas worked as an educator for a short period of time, teaching at the Kaunas branch of the Lithuanian Arts Institute in 1964. From 1953 to 2006 he worked as an architect at various construction and design firms. Mikėnas died in Kaunas on 10 March 2006.
and Igor Ivanov Igor IvanovTheatre artist and painter, was born in Leningrad on 16 January 1937, and was known for his work developing artistic independence and opportunities in authorial work in dramatic theatre.

Ivanov studied at the Leningrad School of the Arts from 1950 to 1956, and at the Repin Institute for Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Leningrad from 1956 to 1962.  Ivanov lived and worked in Lithuania from 1962 to 1971, becoming known for his work as a designer and director. Since 1971, Ivanov resides in Leningrad (St. Petersburg), and has participated in artistic exhibitions since 1962. In 1972 he was awarded the First Prize at the All-Union Young Theatre Artists' Competition in Moscow.
and Michail Percov, Michail PercovTheatre artist and painter, was born on 26 May 1919 in Kazan, Russia, and was known for his experimentation in Soviet Lithuanian theatre with brave new forms and methods.

After graduating from a trade school in Odessa, Percov studied painting at the Odessa School for the Arts from 1936 to 1939. He moved to Vilnius in 1946. Percov worked as a theatre artist at the Žemaičių Drama Theatre from 1947 to 1949, the Šiauliai Drama Theatre from 1949 to 1953, and the Lithuanian State Academic Drama Theatre from 1953 to 1970.  From 1970 to 1989, he was the senior theatre artist at the Lithuanian State Russian Drama Theatre. Percov's most productive artistic period began in the 1960s. From 1959 to 1979 he lectured at the Lithuanian State Conservatory and joined the Lithuanian Artists' Union in 1959.

Percov painted in oil, watercolours and ink, creating landscapes and thematic compositions. His personal works were exhibited in Vilnius in 1965, 1966 and 1969. In 1965 he was awarded the title of Distinguished Artist of the Lithuanian SSR. Percov died in Vilnius on 15 December 2001.
both hailing from Russia.
A new generation of female set designers also debuted successfully in Lithuania, including Janina Malinauskaitė, Janina MalinauskaitėTheatre artist and painter, was born on 25 February 1935 in Kaunas. Malinauskaitė made a name for herself as a rebellious experimenter in Soviet theatre, and became one of the most prominent set designers of the 1970s and 1980s as a creator of conceptual and grotesque set designs.

She studied painting at the Lithuanian State Art Institute, receiving a degree in set design in 1959 (studying under Vytautas Palaima). While studying, she designed sets for productions staged at the Klaipėda and Vilnius Russian Drama Theatres. Malinauskaitė began working at the Kaunas Drama Theatre as a designer in 1959. She has been a member of the Lithuanian Artists' Union since 1964, and has exhibited her works in Lithuania and abroad since 1960. 
Dalia Mataitienė, Dalia Lidija MataitienėBorn 6 June 1936 in Klaipėda, was one of the most renowned Lithuanian theatre artists of the 1970s, creating her own style of romantically uplifting set designs using colours often featured in Lithuanian art.

She earned her degree in theatre arts upon graduation from the Lithuanian State Art Institute in 1960. Mataitienė worked as an artist with the Lithuanian State Academic Drama Theatre from 1960 to 1961, with the "Lietuva" State Song and Dance Ensemble from 1962 to 1964, and with the Lithuanian Film Studios from 1964 to 1965. She has been a member of the Lithuanian Artists' Union since 1961, and was a member of the Lithuanian Theatre Society from 1961 to 1987. Mataitienė was a member of the Lithuanian Arts Foundation from 1964 to 1988, and has participated in artistic exhibitions since 1960.
Joana Taujanskienė Joana TaujanskienėTheatre artist, was born on 12 July 1924, in Šiauliai. Her extensive body of work and command of various genres was an example for many other theatre artists.

From 1939 to 1943, Taujanskienė studied at the Šiauliai Teachers' School, where Juozas Jankus was then giving instruction in drawing. From 1942 to 1944, Taujanskienė attended the Art Studio in Šiauliai, studying under instructors such as Gerardas Bagdonavičius, Leonas Katinas and Teofilis Petraitis. She briefly worked as a teacher at a middle school in Radviliškis in 1944 before entering the Vilnius Art Institute in 1945, where she studied painting and, after several breaks in her studies, she graduated from the theatre decoration department (then under the direction of Vytautas Palaima) in 1953. Upon graduation she was appointed to the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre in Vilnius, but soon returned to her native Šiauliai. All of her subsequent work was done in association with the Šiauliai Drama Theatre, where Taujanskienė worked as a senior designer from 1954 to 1979. She also contributed to the work of non-professional theatre productions in Šiauliai, Telšiai and Naujoji Akmenė.

In 1955 she took part in an exhibition of Lithuanian theatre artists. Taujanskienė was honoured with the title of Distinguished Artist of the Lithuanian SSR in 1965, and was awarded with honorary certificates from the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet Presidium and the Lithuanian Ministry of Culture. Taujanskienė died in Šiauliai on 15 August 1983.
 and Viktorija Gatavynaitė, Theatre designer, was born on 31 May 1933, in Kaunas, and was known for her set designs embodying youthful angst and meaningfully recurring motifs.

Gatavynaitė received her degree in set design in 1958 from the Lithuanian State Art Institute (under Vytautas Palaima). In 1957 she lectured at the Vilnius Technical School for Culture and Education, and later at the Vilnius School of the Arts in 1959. Gatavynaitė worked as a theatre designer at the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre from 1958 to 1962, and as a set builder and decorator at Lithuanian Television from 1962 to 1971.

She participated in many theatre art exhibitions, including: exhibitions of the works of young set designers in Moscow (1959) and Brazil (1960), an exhibition of set designs of the Baltic republics (1964), the Baltic Set Design Triennials in Riga (1973) and Vilnius (1977), the All-Union Exhibition of Theatre, Cinema and Television Design in Moscow (1967), and the Lithuanian Theatre Artists' Exhibition in Vilnius (in 1963 and 1966). 
who added their contributions to the work of such established female theatre artists as Regina Songailaitė and Juzefa Čeičytė. All of these artists influenced the further development of Lithuanian set design. When examining the set designs of that period, one comment from that period is often cited:
The new generation of artists that arrived on the theatre scene after 1960 almost immediately became the centre of much commotion, sparking new interest in and lively discussions of their work.  „Scenografija ir dabarties teatras“, Dailė, Nr. 21, Vilnius: Vaga, 1979.
After a long pause that followed the first stirring of audience emotions by set design in the 19th century, much of that interest was rekindled by the works of the mid-20th century.
Innovation in theatre was embraced with great fervour, but not without difficulty. The works of set designer Juzefa Čeičytė were condemned on several occasions. One of the first productions featuring abstract set designs that provoked strong audience criticism was Žuvėdros palydi (The Seagulls Follow) by Viktoras Miliūnas, staged in 1960. Theatre critic I. Aleksaitė remembers:
One audience member thrashed the set designer's work with a few curt sentences and, with enviable self-confidence, began to describe the scene as he would have liked to have seen it. After accusing Čeičytė of 'blatant modernism', the comrade collected himself and sat back down. Oddly enough, the actors also immediately began to rebuke the artist. Irena Aleksaitė, „Kai kalba dekoracija“, Pergalė, 1963, Nr. 1, p. 136.Irena Aleksaitė, „Kai kalba dekoracija“, Pergalė, 1963, Nr. 1, p. 136.
Actors opposed many of Čeičytė's concepts. Great effort was always required to remove superfluous objects from the stage.
During rehearsals for Gylys (The Gadfly)," Čeičytė recalls, "one actress demanded that a railing be constructed for her (to provide more comfort, more meaning!). I satisfied her request.  But, during the dress rehearsal, I took down the prop without any prior warning. Strangely enough, the actress never missed it. Cit. iš: Lietuvių tarybinis dramos teatras: 1957–1970, sudarė Algirdas Gaižutis, Vilnius: Vaga, 1987, p. 172.
Set designers frequently also had difficulty finding a common language with directors. Designer Janina Malinauskaitė remembers long negotiations over the design of sets for King Lear:
There were all kinds of versions. Designs now are not fully utilised. There must always be a strong connection between director and designer. Now, I am left on my own, and the direction is on its own. Kauno valstybinio dramos teatro meno tarybos posėdžio protokolas, 1961 01 29, Lietuvos literatūros ir meno archyvas, f. 282, ap. 1, b. 60, l. 6.
But directors did not give in: "We can perform with these designs, but I can't really embrace them. I don't feel any innovative or new ideas." Other critics were also of different opinions: some felt that "triangular panels were glaring," while others like them. Kauno valstybinio dramos teatro meno tarybos posėdžio protokolas, 1961 01 29, Lietuvos literatūros ir meno archyvas, f. 282, ap. 1, b. 60, l. 6.
It is very likely that many such conflicts with producers provoked drastic decisions by designers to leave the theatre or to stage dramatic works on their own to test their directorial abilities. Juzefa Čeičytė, having worked in theatre since 1949, left the stage in 1962 to collaborate with the Lithuanian Film Studios. Igor Ivanov left the Youth Theatre in 1968.
Yet, despite these losses, producers and directors found positive elements arising from these confrontations. Director Povilas Gaidys noted:
While it may sound shocking, I became convinced that constant conflict with audiences was the only productive path forward for any theatre. In its attempts to grow, theatre must educate audiences, nurturing the viewer's artistic understanding. Such education is usually always conflictual by nature.  Leonidas Jacinevičius, „Ilgoje distancijoje“, Nemunas, 1970, Nr. 4, p. 55.


Write a comment
No comments.

Sources and links

Kauno valstybinio dramos teatro meno tarybos posėdžio protokolas, 1961 01 29
Lietuvos literatūros ir meno archyvas, f. 282, ap. 1, b. 60, l. 6
Lietuvių tarybinis dramos teatras: 1957–1970
Sudarytojas Algirdas Gaižutis, Vilnius: Vaga, 1987
„Scenografija ir dabarties teatras“
Dailė, Nr. 21, Vilnius: Vaga, 1979
Veronikos Kulešovos kalba teatro dailės konferencijoje 1964 12 14
Protokolas LTSR kultūros ministerijai, 1965 01 15 (dailininko Vytauto Palaimos dokumentacija, dabar jo sūnaus Juozo Palaimos nuosavybė)
Irena Aleksaitė
„Kai kalba dekoracija“
Pergalė, 1963, Nr. 1
Antonin Artaud
Teatras ir jo antrininkas
Vilnius: Scena, 1999
Pierre Corneille
Discours du poeme dramatique
Paris, 1660
René Hainaux
Le décor de théâtre dans le monde depuis 1950
Bruxelles, Paris: Meddens, 1964
Leonidas Jacinevičius
„Ilgoje distancijoje“
Nemunas, 1970, Nr. 4
Juozas Algimantas Krištopaitis
„Dvilypumo briauna sovietmečio visuomenės elgsenoje“
Priklausomybės metų (1940–1990) lietuvių visuomenė: pasipriešinimas ir/ar prisitaikymas, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 1996
Romualdas Misiūnas, Rein Taagepera
Baltijos valstybės: priklausomybės metai 1940–1980
Vilnius: Mintis, 1992
[[item.description]] [[item.details]]
You have subscribed successfully.
Patikrinkite savo pašto dėžutę ir paspauskite nat gautos nuorods norėdami patvirtinti užsakymą.