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1967–1978: Lithuanian Ballet’s Efforts at Renewal
Helmutas Šabasevičius
An infusion of new artistic talent brought about a qualitative renewal of Lithuanian ballet in the 1960s with the return to Vilnius in 1959 of a group of dancers who had recently graduated from the Leningrad State Choreographic Institute (now known as the Agrippina Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet). These artists included Leokadija Aškelovičiūtė, Regina Baranauskaitė, Genovaitė Samaitytė, Ramutė Šimėnaitė, Gražina Žvikaitė, Antanas Beliukevičius, Eugenijus Judinas, Raimondas Minderis, Pranas Peluritis and Vytautas Sinkevičius. Pranė Sargūnaitė ir Elegijus Bukaitis graduated from the Leningrad academy one year later and returned to join the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre in Vilnius.
The ranks of the new, younger ballet company were also complemented by graduates of the Moscow School of Choreography, including Lithuanian dancers Vytautas Kudžma, Sigita Vabalevičiūtė, as well as performers of other nationalities who had completed their training in other cities in the USSR before coming to Vilnius, such as Svetlana Masaniova (from the Byelorussian SSR School of Choreography), Nina Antonova (Moscow School of Choreography), and Natalija Kairienė and Natalia Topchevskaya, both of the Leningrad Choreographic Institute. Another graduate of the Leningrad school, Yuri Vasyuchenko, performed with the Vilnius company from 1974 to 1976, and later became famous as a performer with the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. New performers also came from the small but increasingly formidable ranks of the M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art in Vilnius, including Rūta Krugiškytė, Elena Švedaj, Gražina Sakalauskaitė, Voldemaras Chlebinskas, and Jonas Katakinas.
The first attempts at modern choreography in Lithuania were associated with Russian choreographer Konstantin Boyarsky Konstantin Boyarsky Konstantin Boyarsky (1915–1974) was a Russian ballet performer and choreographer.

Boyarsky graduated from the Leningrad Technical School of Choreography in 1935, and completed choreography training in 1941, studying under Fyodor Lopukhov. From 1935 to 1941 he danced at the Mariinsky Theatre, and simultaneously began working as a choreographer for the Musical Comedy Theatre. Boyarsky was a choreographer for the Malenki (now Mikhailovsky) Theatre from 1956 to 1967, and artistic director for the Leningrad Ice Ballet company from 1967 to 1974.

Boyarsky primarily choreographed original works, including Francesca da Rimini in 1959, A Classical Symphony, and Dimitri Shostakovich’s Encounter and The Lady and the Hooligan, all in 1962. Vytautas Grivickas directed The Lady and the Hooligan in Lithuania, based on Boyarsky’s choreography, in 1971, assisted by Antanas Beliukevičius, a former dancer with the Malenki Theatre. The same ballet was performed in 1981 at the Klaipėda Musical Theatre, directed by Elegijus Bukaitis.

Boyarsky’s work bolstered experimental trends in Russian ballet, and he was joined in the theatre by contemporary composers and performers. Boyarsky often used original literary material for his productions.
(1915–1974), who mounted Antanas Rekašius’ (1928–2003) ballet Gęstantis kryžius Gęstantis kryžius (The Fading Cross)The ballet takes place in America. Betty, a blind white woman, loves Bob, a black man. She "has never seen blacks or whites. A person's skin color means nothing to her [...] But in a country ravaged by racial hatred, the love between a black man and a white woman is doomed" (citation from The Fading Cross [production program], LSSR Opera and Ballet Theatre, 1966). Betty's brother Will despises Bob. After Betty regains her sight with the help of an operation, her love for Bob does not die. Another brother, Ralph, tries to defend the couple, but Will and his friends blind Bob, while Betty dies trying to protect her beloved. (The Fading Cross) in 1966. The production’s expressive and modernist music was complimented by the austere set designs of Antanas Pilipavičius (b. 1938) and a plasticity of choreography, though the ballet’s libretto (written by the composer himself) was highly ideological and infused with the Cold War tension of that era.
Innovative trends in Lithuanian choreography in the 1970s were inspired by the work of choreographer Elegijus Bukaitis Elegijus Bukaitis Elegijus Bukaitis (b. 1941 in Kaunas) is a Lithuanian ballet performer and choreographer, who trained at the Choreography Department of the Čiurlionis School of Art, graduating from the Leningrad Choreographic Institute in 1962, and later studying at the Choreography Department of the Leningrad Conservatory from 1962 to 1971.

From 1971 to 1973, Bukaitis choreographed for the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre, serving as senior choreographer there in 1973–1978 and 1991–1992. From 1978 to 1986, Bukaitis choreographed for the Stage and Orchestra Ensembles Association.

Since 1984, he directs the Rhythmic Dance Improvization Studio of the Lithuanian Ministry of Internal Affairs Cultural and Sports Hall. In his work, Bukaitis embraced a modernized classical style, seeking plastic equivalents for modern music in dance movement.
(b. 1941). Soon after graduating from the Choreographic Institute in Leningrad, Bukaitis began studying choreography and directing, mounting his first production, Aistros Aistros (Passions)The hero of the ballet, Ąžuolas, is torn between Giedrė, a human child, and her bright dreams and her "joy at scientific discovery", and Aistrė, a woman of dreamy and treacherous beauty born of "the world of evil and darkness." After winning over Ąžuolas, Aistrė is triumphant, but sensing that Giedrė is attracting evermore supporters, she forces Ąžuolas to kill Giedrė. But Ąžuolas comes to his senses and "dies in battle without achieving victory. Having lost her admirer, Aistrė weakens. Giedrė leads the people to vanquish evil." (Aistros, ballet program, LSSR Opera and Ballet Theatre, 1971). In 1986, Bukaitis mounted the ballet Aura based on the music and ideas of Aistros. Using rather exalted combinations of modern and classical choreography, the production contemplated man's existence: He, standing at the crossroads of good and evil, with She representing good and Aura—evil. Set designs for this production were created by Marija Jukniūtė and Irena Zabarauskaitė. (Passions), in 1971, based on the music of Antanas Rekašius. The production was one of the first ballets in Lithuania to forego a literary storyline, replacing it with dramaturgical conflict using allegorical characters: good, symbolized by the character Giedrė, evil, embodied by Aistrė, and Ąžuolas, representing man. Production designers had intended to use a fair amount of lighting and technical effects, with set designs by Marija Jukniūtė, but it soon became clear that Jukniūtė’s concept would be impossible to implement on the small stage of the Lithuanian Opera and Ballet Theatre of that time. As a result, the production went on with sets designed by Juozas Jankus.
Bukaitis was the first Lithuanian choreographer to deliberately seek out new themes and expressive forms of modern choreography linked to the poetic and artistic works of his contemporaries. Some of Bukaitis’ concepts were never implemented, including an abstract ballet, first begun in 1971, based on the symphonic poem Jūra (Sea) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, for which Bukaitis created a large number of movements and pose diagrams.
Bukaitis also directed classical ballets. His first production was Pyotr Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker, editing the production’s libretto himself, imbuing it with a mysterious mood more characteristic of the work of E. T. A. Hoffman. Borrowing a few fragments from a production created by Russian choreographer Vasili Vainonen (1901–1964), Bukaitis choreographed the majority of the ballet himself, complementing classical choreographic movements with folk dance and improvized elements. Bukaitis edited the production’s libretto himself, emphasizing the mysterious world of Hoffman’s story, foregoing the traditional presentation of Drosselmeyer through pantomime, and instead creating a dance role for the character. The second act took place in “a kingdom of dead dolls ruled over by Drosselmeyer” where, even though evil had been vanquished, “terrible memories” lingered. Spragtukas: Spektaklio programa, Vilnius: LTSR operos ir baleto teatras, 1973. The production’s set designer, Regina Songailaitė, used a large amount of silver in her sets, alongside varying use of lighting.
A measured sense of modernity was also evident in Bukaitis’ choreographic polyptych Apmąstymai šokyje (Reflections in Dance), staged together with Georgian choreographer Giorgi Aleksidze (1941–2008). The Reflections were abstract choreographic creations based on a symphonic principle, with choreographic ideas conveyed through neoclassical dance movements to the music of Sergei Prokofiev, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Frédéric Chopin, and Ludwig Minkus.
A significant event in the development of Lithuanian ballet was the opening of a new theatre space in Vilnius, on Vienuolio Street, in 1974. The building, designed by architect Nijolė Bučiūtė, was considerably larger than the old ballet theatre, with a main stage spanning 16 meters wide and rising 9 meters high. This necessitated new approaches for old productions, including new set designs. New set design techniques, considered modern in their day (16 and 11 meter wide revolving platforms, ample stage wing space, modern lighting capabilities), allowed the creation of somewhat more complex and impressive visual production forms. American stage equipment was acquired, including Kliegl Brothers lighting, two FAS smoke and fog machines, as well as German sound reproduction equipment. Specialists from Moscow’s Bolshoi Theatre traveled to Lithuania to instruct their colleagues on how to use the new lighting equipment. Set designs were not the only thing in need of adaptation: a larger stage demanded a larger company, thus many new dancers were invited to Vilnius from Russia and other Soviet republics.
The first ballet production in the new theatre was Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake, directed by Bukaitis, based on choreography by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, but with original directorial and choreographic choices in the first act and finale: Odette and Siegfried are killed, however their death liberates the other swans from the bushes.
Russian composer Rodion Shchedrin’s Anna Karenina opened in Vilnius in 1975. The ballet was mounted, based on a Moscow production, by ballerina Maya Plisetskaya Maya PlisetskayaMaya Plisetskaya (b. 1925 in Moscow) is one of the most prominent ballet performers of the latter half of the 20th century, as well as a choreographer, actor, and public figure.

Her mother, Rachel Messerer, an actor in a deaf theatre company, was born in Vilnius, as was Plisetskaya’s uncle, the dancer and choreographer Asaf Plisetsky. Her aunt Sulamita Messer was also a dancer for Moscow’s Bolshoi Theatre. Plisetskaya’s father, Mikhail Plisetsky, was an engineer and diplomat who in 1938 was accused of espionage and sentenced to death.

Maya Plisetskaya began studying ballet at the age of 9, and began working with the USSR Bolshoi Theatre Ballet Company at 18, where she soon began performing lead roles. Because of her Jewish heritage, Plisetskaya was forbidden from traveling abroad on foreign tours until 1959. Once her travel ban was lifted, she became an international star, though, unlike her colleagues Rudolf Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, and Natalia Makarova, she never emigrated from the Soviet Union.

She continued to dance for the Bolshoi in Moscow until 1990, performing nearly all of the lead rolls in classical ballets (Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Raymonda, Don Quixote) as well as Soviet productions (Spartakus, The Tale of the Stone Flower, Romeo and Juliet, and others), and performing miniatures composed by renowned composers (including Dying Swan).

Cuban choreographer Alberto Alonso composed the ballet Carmen Suite for her in 1967, and Maurice Béjart honored Plisetskaya by dedicating to her his Isadora (1976) and the composition Ave, Maya (1995). Plisetskaya’s husband, Rodion Shchedrin, whom she married in 1958, also composed several ballets for her, including Anna Karenina, Lady with the Little Dog, Seagull, and The Little Humpbacked Horse.

Plisetskaya has danced on the most famous stages in the world and was known for her musicality and exquisite dance technique: high leaps, strong and bold pirouettes, and expressive, charismatic acting.

Plisetskaya and Shchedrin were granted Lithuanian citizenship in 1990, and both were awarded the Grand Commander’s Cross for “Merits to Lithuania” in 2003. In 2005, they received the Barbora Radvilaitė medal for their contributions to Lithuanian culture and ballet and their efforts to develop cultural relations.  
and choreographers Nataliya Ryzhenko and Victor Smirnov-Golovanov. The production’s choreography was musical and uniquely dramatized, lending overtones of emotional experiences to the esthetics of classical plasticity, using new (cinematographic) forms of expression enhanced by lighting to create a unique feeling for each of seventeen lyrical scenes. The ballet was distinguished by an emotional intensity, endeavoring to reveal the key stages in the heroine’s life, using visions, memories and associations to illustrate her struggle with her surroundings. Alongside dramatically intense duets, the ballet also featured expressive mass scenes, with students from the M. K. Čiurlionis School Ballet Department performing the roll of a military brass band in the race scene. The production’s finale—the portrayal of an approaching and then receding train—was accomplished with lighting techniques. Plisetskaya herself performed the role of Anna Karenina in one of the production’s performances, while Jonas Katakinas was invited to the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow in 1984 to perform the role of Karenin at the 100th performance of the ballet there.
In 1976, Bukaitis mounted a production based on composer Eduardas Balsys’ adaptation of the Lithuanian folk tale Eglė žalčių karalienė (Eglė, Queen of the Serpents), with sets and costumes by designer Rimtautas Gibavičius (1935–1993). The production sought to combine classical dance, plastic movement and ethnographic elements, leaving no traces of pure ethnography or illustrative presentation in its choreography or sets. Costumes also lost their usual ballet clothing style: dancers performed only in colorful tights. Yet not all of the production designers’ concepts were implemented. Gibavičius, who had created expressive, simple and musical sketches, was unhappy with the production and construction quality of the sets. Following the show’s premiere, he penned a letter to the theatre’s director, listing 15 deficiencies he wished to address immediately.
The theatre itself, however, considered Eglė, Queen of the Serpents to be a very significant event, insisting it had made every effort to mount a new national production from the ground up, with new choreography and set designs, using a large choreographic team and new set design technology to the greatest extent possible, and dealing with new technical issues for the first time, such as a large (40 x 8 meters) moving panoramic panel. Though visual and choreographic choices were innovative for the day, they did not suit the illustrative, ethnographic motifs present in the production’s musical score. In 1977, the production was taken to Weimar, in then East Germany—the first foreign performance for the ballet company in a very long time. The tour, incidentally, began rather dismally, with the company’s train involved in a railroad accident (never officially reported), during which several soloists and performers were injured.
The innovative Russian choreographer Nikolai Boyarchikov Nikolai Boyarchikov Nikolai Boyarchikov (b. 1935 in Leningrad), the Russian choreographer, graduated from the Leningrad School of Choreography in 1954, and later the Choreography Department of the Leningrad State Conservatory in 1967 (as a student of Fyodor Lopukhov).

He danced with the Malenki (now Mikhailovysky) Opera and Ballet Theatre from 1954. From 1971 to 1977 he led the Perm Opera and Ballet Theatre Ballet Company, and in 1977 he became senior choreographer for the Malenki Opera and Ballet Theatre.

He embraced the neoclassical style (as in Romeo and Juliet, 1972; Tsar Boris, based on music by Prokofiev, 1975; Leonid Klinichev’s The Quiet Danube, 1984, etc.). In Lithuania, Boyarchikov staged Mikhail Chulaki’s A Servant to Two Masters in 1979.  
(b. 1935) worked in Vilnius in 1977, where he mounted the first ever production in Lithuania of Prokofiev’s ballet Romeo and Juliet. Boyarchikov sought to recreate the Shakespearean tragedy’s era and characters through dance, avoiding the illustrative style or a straight retelling of the storyline to focus instead on the inner world and feelings of the production’s protagonists. The result was a polyphonic ballet that highlighted the play’s dramatic and tragic themes. The production centered on three different groups of characters, each with their own choreographic themes: the city dwellers, the Montague and Capulet families, and Romeo and Juliet with five accompanying pairs of dancers paraphrasing their emotions. There was no regular corps de ballet and each dancer had their own plastic characterization and the opportunity to reveal themselves as individuals. Boyarchikov’s choreography was distinct in its subtle arm movements as well as graceful and light poses that echoed the lyricism of Shakespeare’s sonnets, expressed through classical dance methods. The portraits of Romeo and Juliet were sometimes eclipsed by scenes featuring the play’s negative characters: the deaths of Mercutio and Tybalt, for example, or Tybalt’s lament. Nevertheless, the production ended on a brighter note: following the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, six pairs of dancers make it their mission to promote eternal love.
In 1978, Estonian choreographer Mai Murdmaa (b. 1938) staged Béla Bartók’s (1881–1945) ballet The Miraculous Mandarin, using modern choreographic plasticity and restrained yet expressive poses.
Several world-renowned foreign ballet performers toured Lithuania at this time, including Opéra de Paris soloists Patrice Bart and Francesca Zumbo in the ballet Giselle in 1970, Milan’s La Scala ballerina Liliana Cosi, performing the principle roles in Swan Lake and Giselle in 1973, French dancers Jean Guizerix and Wilfride Piollet in 1975 with the Opéra de Paris’ production of Swan Lake, and the famous Canadian dancers Karen Kain and Frank Augustyn, appearing in a January, 1977 staging of Giselle. Liliana Cosi was accompanied in this production by the Lithuanian ballet soloist Jonas Katakinas, who later recalled:
I didn’t know that she wore [contact] lenses, which were quite the new thing for us then. Suddenly she asked me to lead her off stage. I did. She was clutching at her eyes and I had no idea what had happened. She asked for a mirror. She said in Russian: ‘I’ve lost my eyes.’ I couldn’t understand—what eyes? We needed to be back on stage, but she said: ‘I’ve lost my eyes and I can’t go back out.’ She did find her lenses, in the end, and we made it back out in time. Krantai, 1995, spalis–gruodis, p. 97.  
Significant exposure to modern Russian choreographic exploration came in 1973, when Leonid Jacobson’s Leonid Jacobson Leonid Jacobson (1904–1975) was a Russian choreographer of Jewish descent.

Jacobson graduated from the Leningrad Choreographic School in 1926 and worked at the Malenki Theatre. His first major work was the staging of the second act of Dimitri Shostakovich’s ballet The Golden Age, in which he included ballroom dancing (tango, foxtrot, etc.) motifs. Jacobson’s production of Farid Yarullin’s ballet Shurale was scheduled to open in Moscow on June 22, 1941, but was cancelled after the outbreak of hostilities with Nazi Germany. The production was later staged at the Kirov (now Mariinsky) Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1950 (and was mounted in 1961 in Lithuania by Juozas Gudavičius).

In 1956, Jacobson directed Aram Khachaturian’s Spartacus (later staged in Lithuania in 1964 by Vytautas Grivickas), and in 1959 he established the “Choreographic Miniatures” dance theatre, which went on to popularize small-scale choreographic creative forms, and explore modern, plastic forms of expression that ran counter to the canons of classical ballet. Jacobson found inspiration for his work in literature (choreographing performances, first censored then banned, based on Alexander Blok’s The Twelve and the poetry of Vladimir Mayakovsky’s The Bedbug), art (miniatures inspired by motifs taken from the sculpture of Auguste Rodin), and dance history (miniatures dedicated to the 18th and 19th century ballet dancers Auguste Vestris and Marie Taglioni).  
(1904–1975) dancer theatre “Choreographic miniatures” toured Vilnius, giving three performances there: a series of miniatures entitled Classicism-Romanticism (featuring an innovative interpretation of the Dying Swan), Rodin’s Sculptures (based on the works of Auguste Rodin), and Exercise XX. Jacobson’s work had a tremendous influence on choreographers throughout the Soviet Union, including Lithuania.
The new Lithuanian opera and ballet house became an ever more frequent stop on the tours of visiting foreign dance companies organized by the official Soviet production agency Goskoncert. Goskoncert Goskoncert (Госконцерт in Russian, an abbreviation for Государственное концертное объединение СССР, or the USSR State Concert Union) was a Soviet agency established in 1956 to organize tours by foreign companies visiting the USSR as well as international performances by Soviet artists. Goskoncert also organized festivals, competitions, and cultural as well as political events to commemorate significant historical dates. Goskoncert was regulated by guidelines approved by the USSR Ministry of Culture in 1971. Among the first visiting companies to perform on the new stage were the New York City Joffrey Ballet and the Pécs (Hungary) National Theatre Ballet Company with a modern choreography program produced in November, 1976 that included Igor Stravinsky’s Holy Spring (choreographed by Imre Eck), and the productions, both choreographed by Sándor Tóth, of Transfigured Night (based on music by Arnold Schoenberg) and Screams (based on the music of Gustav Mahler). On February 17–20, 1977, Vilnius hosted the Grand Theatre of Warsaw and its program of modern choreographic work. The Polish company performed Igor Stravinsky’s Soldier’s Tale (directed by Krystyna Meissner Krystyna MeissnerKrystyna Meissner (b. 1933 in Warsaw) is a Polish theatre director, artistic director for theatres in Toruń, Kraków, Wrocław and other cities, and the founder, in 1991, of the “Kontakt” international theatre festival in Toruń (which often hosted and recognized Lithuanian theatre directors Eimuntas Nekrošius, Rimas Tuminas, Oskaras Koršunovas). In 2001, Meissner established the “Dialog” international theatre festival in Wrocław. and choreographed by Alberte Lazzini), Four Love Sonnets based on the work of William Shakespeare and the music of Tadeusz Baird, Augustyn Bloch’s Salmo gioioso (both productions choreographed by Witold Gruca), and Capriccio, based on the music of Krzysztof Penderecki (choreographed by Marta Bochenek). Like many opera and ballet theatres in the Soviet Union, the repertoire of the Lithuanian ballet company was largely comprised of narrative productions, thus the visits by foreign performers introduced both dance professionals as well as audiences with modern, non-narrative dance productions and an abstract language of imagery that avoided purely illustrative approaches. This exploration of alternatives to classical ballet dance forms encouraged choreographers to create new works based on modern musical composition.
While few ballets were performed at the Kaunas Musical Theatre, the stage did produce the occasional interesting experiment. In 1961, for example, Russian choreographer Yuri Yastrebov directed Boris Asafyev’s ballet The Fountain of Bakhchisarai, with set designs by Dalia Mataitienė, who was later accused of “formalism” for her decorative adaptations and costume choices. Kaunas did, however, host so-called miniature choreographic concerts with stand-alone dance scenes: Henrikas Kunavičius staged the dance production Lėkite, paukščiai (Fly, Birds) in 1967, and Alfredas Kondratavičius directed Atsisveikinimo simfonija (Farewell Symphony) based on music by Joseph Hyden in 1970. Kondratavičius also created a ballet featuring modern choreographic elements entitled Terra Archegon based on the symphonic suite Afrikietiški eskizai (African Sketches) by Julius Juzeliūnas in 1972. The production was staged in Vilnius in 1979 with graduates of the M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art’s Choreography Department.
By the end of the 1960s, the creative program of the Čiurlionis School of Art was expanded, including the staging of productions by its students. In 1969, Juozas Gudavičius and Lili Navickytė-Ramanauskienė directed Abelis Klenickis’ ballet Beširdis (Heartless), set at a Soviet Young Pioneer camp. At the open of the production, a heartless boy encounters a witch in the forest. In the end, he is able to defeat the witch with the help of his fellow Young Pioneers. The first act of the ballet was also performed by the Čiurlionis students in Moscow, in the Congress Hall of the USSR Communist Party. Another production was soon choreographed and staged, this time a recreation of Léo Delibes’ Coppélia, based on a historic production of that ballet by Nikolai Zverev. The ballet was later performed by students at the renowned Oktyabrsky Concert Hall in Leningrad.
At that time, modern dance forms were being advanced by the "Sonata" amateur dance company in Kaunas, under the direction of Kira Daujotaitė.​


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Sources and links

Liepsnojantis maestro
Vilnius: Krantų redakcija, 2012
Aliodija Ruzgaitė
Prisiminimų blyksniai
Sudarė Alė Šimkienė, Vilnius: Tyto alba, 2010
Helmutas Šabasevičius
„Baletas 1957–1980 metais“
Lietuvių teatro istorija. Kn. 3: 1970–1980, sudarė Irena Aleksaitė, Vilnius: Kultūros, filosofijos ir meno institutas, 2006, p. 434–489
Audronė Žiūraitytė
Ne vien apie baletą...
Vilnius: Krantai, Lietuvos muzikos ir teatro akademija, 2009

Production programs

Spektaklio programa, Vilnius: LTSR operos ir baleto teatras, 1971
Gęstantis kryžius
Spektaklio programa, Vilnius: LTSR operos ir baleto teatras, 1966
Spektaklio programa, Vilnius: LTSR operos ir baleto teatras, 1973
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